We are interested in developing novel materials and processes for efficient and cost-effective energy conversion and energy storage. Our research activities center on low cost, one step synthesis and fabrication of the electrodes with a novel structures, in situ characterization, and multi-scale modeling of membranes, thin films, gradient porosity, and nanostructured electrodes with heterogeneous surfaces and interfaces, aiming at achieving rational design of materials and structures with unique functionalities for efficient energy storage and conversion. Our focus is on fundamental understanding of the effect of structure, defects, and microstructure on transport and electrical properties of surfaces and interfaces. In our studies we are addressing performance and life prognosis, the durability study under real environments (i.e., high current, low humidity, presents of contaminants in fuel and air etc.) aging, material state changes, and long term behavior.